Scholarly articles on bitcoin

scholarly articles on bitcoin

A comprehensive list of all articles and content categorized as Bitcoin & Blockchain in The CPA Journal. Bitcoin, gold and the dollar · Order Journal Personal · Order Journal Institutional. The remainder of the paper proceeds as follows: in section Literature Review, we expose a literature overview, presenting those papers that. BRD CRYPTO Scholarly articles on bitcoin cryptocurrency calculate rsi

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He promptly forgot about them until widespread media coverage of the anonymous, decentralised, peer-to-peer digital currency in April jogged his memory. Bitcoins are stored in encrypted wallets secured with a private key, something Koch had forgotten. After eventually working out what the password could be, Koch got a pleasant surprise:.

A user can then withdraw those bitcoins by sending them back to an exchanger like Mt Gox , the best known bitcoin exchange, in return for cash. However, bitcoin is gaining more and more traction within the physical world too. It is now possible to actually spend bitcoins without exchanging them for traditional currency first in a few British pubs , including the Pembury Tavern in Hackney, London, for instance. Mining is a time-consuming and expensive endeavour due to the way the currency is designed.

However, some yield higher rewards than others. Certain computer chips, called application-specific integrated circuits ASICs , and more advanced processing units, such as graphic processing units GPUs , can achieve more rewards. These elaborate mining processors are known as "mining rigs. One bitcoin is divisible to eight decimal places millionths of one bitcoin , and this smallest unit is referred to as a Satoshi.

If necessary, and if the participating miners accept the change, Bitcoin could eventually be made divisible to even more decimal places. The domain name Bitcoin. Today, at least, this domain is WhoisGuard Protected, meaning the identity of the person who registered it is not public information.

A person or group using the name Satoshi Nakamoto makes an announcement to the Cryptography Mailing List at metzdowd. The first Bitcoin block is mined—Block 0. The first version of the Bitcoin software is announced to the Cryptography Mailing List. Block 1 is mined, and Bitcoin mining commences in earnest. No one knows who invented Bitcoin, or at least not conclusively. Satoshi Nakamoto is the name associated with the person or group of people who released the original Bitcoin white paper in and worked on the original Bitcoin software that was released in In the years since then, many individuals have either claimed to be or been rumored to be the real-life people behind the pseudonym, but as of November , the true identity or identities of Satoshi Nakamoto remains obscured.

Although it is tempting to believe the media's spin that Satoshi Nakamoto is a solitary, quixotic genius who created Bitcoin out of thin air, such innovations do not typically happen in a vacuum. All major scientific discoveries, no matter how seemingly original, were built on previously existing research. The Bitcoin white paper itself makes reference to Hashcash and b-money as well as various other works spanning several research fields.

Perhaps unsurprisingly, many of the individuals behind the other projects named above have been speculated to have also had a hand in creating Bitcoin. There are a few possible motivations for Bitcoin's inventor to keep their identity secret. One is privacy: As Bitcoin has gained in popularity—becoming something of a worldwide phenomenon—Satoshi Nakamoto would likely garner a lot of attention from the media and from governments.

Another reason could be the potential for Bitcoin to cause a major disruption in the current banking and monetary systems. If Bitcoin were to gain mass adoption, the system could surpass nations' sovereign fiat currencies. This threat to existing currency could motivate governments to want to take legal action against Bitcoin's creator. The other reason is safety. Looking at alone, 32, blocks were mined; at the reward rate of 50 Bitcoin per block, the total payout in was 1,, Bitcoin.

One may conclude that only Satoshi and perhaps a few other people were mining through and that they possess a majority of that stash of Bitcoin. Someone in possession of that much Bitcoin could become a target of criminals, especially considering that Bitcoin is less like stocks and more like cash, wherein the private keys needed to authorize spending could be printed out and literally kept under a mattress.

Though it's likely the inventor of Bitcoin would take precautions to make any extortion-induced transfers traceable, remaining anonymous is a good way for Satoshi Nakamoto to limit exposure. Bitcoin can be accepted as a means of payment for products sold or services provided. An online business can easily accept Bitcoin by adding this payment option to its other online payment options: credit cards, PayPal, etc.

El Salvador became the first country to officially adopt Bitcoin as legal tender in June Those who are self-employed can get paid for a job related to Bitcoin. There are several ways to achieve this, such as creating any internet service and adding your Bitcoin wallet address to the site as a form of payment. There are also several websites and job boards that are dedicated to digital currencies:.

Many Bitcoin supporters believe that digital currency is the future. Many individuals who endorse Bitcoin believe it facilitates a much faster, low-fee payment system for transactions across the globe. Although it is not backed by any government or central bank, Bitcoin can be exchanged for traditional currencies; in fact, its exchange rate against the dollar attracts potential investors and traders interested in currency plays.

Indeed, one of the primary reasons for the growth of digital currencies like Bitcoin is that they can act as an alternative to national fiat money and traditional commodities like gold. In March , the IRS stated that all virtual currencies, including Bitcoin, would be taxed as property rather than currency. Gains or losses from Bitcoin held as capital will be realized as capital gains or losses, while Bitcoin held as inventory will incur ordinary gains or losses. The sale of Bitcoin you mined or purchased from another party, or the use of Bitcoin to pay for goods or services, are examples of transactions that can be taxed.

Like any other asset, the principle of buying low and selling high applies to Bitcoin. The most popular way of amassing the currency is through buying on a Bitcoin exchange, but there are many other ways to earn and own Bitcoin. Speculative investors have been drawn to Bitcoin after its rapid price appreciation in recent years.

Thus, many people purchase Bitcoin for its investment value rather than its ability to act as a medium of exchange. However, the lack of guaranteed value and its digital nature means its purchase and use carry several inherent risks. The concept of a virtual currency is still novel and, compared to traditional investments, Bitcoin doesn't have much of a long-term track record or history of credibility to back it.

With its increasing popularity, Bitcoin is becoming less experimental every day; still, after only a decade, all digital currencies remain in a development phase. Investing money in any of Bitcoin's many guises is not for the risk-averse. Bitcoin is a rival to government currency and may be used for underground market transactions, money laundering, illegal activities, or tax evasion. As a result, governments may seek to regulate, restrict, or ban the use and sale of Bitcoin and some already have.

Others are coming up with various rules. For example, in , the New York State Department of Financial Services finalized regulations that would require companies dealing with the buy, sell, transfer, or storage of Bitcoin to record the identity of customers, have a compliance officer, and maintain capital reserves. The lack of uniform regulations about Bitcoin and other virtual currencies raises questions over their longevity, liquidity, and universality.

Most individuals who own and use Bitcoin have not acquired their tokens through mining operations. Rather, they buy and sell Bitcoin and other digital currencies on any of the popular online markets, known as Bitcoin exchanges or cryptocurrency exchanges.

Bitcoin exchanges are entirely digital and—as with any virtual system—are at risk from hackers, malware, and operational glitches. If a thief gains access to a Bitcoin owner's computer hard drive and steals their private encryption key, they could transfer the stolen Bitcoin to another account. Users can prevent this only if their Bitcoin is stored on a computer that is not connected to the internet, or else by choosing to use a paper wallet —printing out the Bitcoin private keys and addresses and not keeping them on a computer at all.

Hackers can also target Bitcoin exchanges, gaining access to thousands of accounts and digital wallets where Bitcoin is stored. One especially notorious hacking incident took place in , when Mt. Gox, a Bitcoin exchange in Japan, was forced to close down after millions of dollars worth of Bitcoin were stolen.

This is particularly problematic given that all Bitcoin transactions are permanent and irreversible. It's like dealing with cash: Any transaction carried out with Bitcoin can only be reversed if the person who has received them refunds them. There is no third party or payment processor as in the case of a debit or credit card—hence, no source of protection or appeal if there is a problem. Generally speaking, Bitcoin exchanges and Bitcoin accounts are not insured by any type of federal or government program.

In , prime dealer and trading platform SFOX announced it would be able to provide Bitcoin investors with FDIC insurance, but only for the portion of transactions involving cash. Though Bitcoin uses private key encryption to verify owners and register transactions, fraudsters and scammers may attempt to sell false Bitcoin.

There have also been documented cases of Bitcoin price manipulation, another common form of fraud. As with any investment, Bitcoin values can fluctuate. Indeed, the value of the currency has seen wild swings in price over its short existence. Subject to high volume buying and selling on exchanges, it has a high sensitivity to any newsworthy events.

If fewer people begin to accept Bitcoin as a currency, these digital units may lose value and could become worthless. Indeed, there was speculation that the "Bitcoin bubble" had burst when the price declined from its all-time high during the cryptocurrency rush in late and early There is already plenty of competition, and although Bitcoin has a huge lead over the hundreds of other digital currencies that have sprung up because of its brand recognition and venture capital money, a technological breakthrough in the form of a better virtual coin is always a threat.

Bitcoin's all-time high price, reached on Nov. In the years since Bitcoin launched, there have been numerous instances in which disagreements between factions of miners and developers prompted large-scale splits of the cryptocurrency community.

In some of these cases, groups of Bitcoin users and miners have changed the protocol of the Bitcoin network itself. This process is known as "forking," and it usually results in the creation of a new type of Bitcoin with a new name. This split can be a " hard fork ," in which a new coin shares transaction history with Bitcoin up until a decisive split point, at which point a new token is created. Examples of cryptocurrencies that have been created as a result of hard forks include Bitcoin Cash created in August , Bitcoin Gold created in October , and Bitcoin SV created in November A " soft fork " is a change to the protocol that is still compatible with the previous system rules.

For example, Bitcoin soft forks have added functionalities such as segregated witness SegWit. Its value is derived from several sources, including its relative scarcity, market demand, and marginal cost of production. Even though Bitcoin is virtual and can't be touched, it is certainly real.

Bitcoin has been around for more than a decade and the system has proved itself to be robust. The computer code that runs the system, moreover, is open source and can be downloaded and analyzed by anybody for bugs or evidence of nefarious intent.

Of course, fraudsters may attempt to swindle people out of their Bitcoin or hack sites such as crypto exchanges, but these are flaws in human behavior or third-party applications and not in Bitcoin itself. The maximum number of bitcoins that will ever be produced is 21 million, and the last bitcoin will be mined at some point around the year As of November , more than By convention, use a capital B when discussing the Bitcoin network, protocol, or system.

Use a small b when talking about individual bitcoins as a unit of value for example, I sent two bitcoins. There are several online exchanges that allow you to purchase Bitcoin. In addition, Bitcoin ATMs —internet-connected kiosks that can be used to buy bitcoins with credit cards or cash—have been popping up around the world. Or, if you know a friend who owns some bitcoins, they may be willing to sell them to you directly without any exchange at all.

Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin Project. Buy Bitcoin Worldwide.

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Miners are rewarded with some Bitcoin; the reward is halved every , blocks. The block reward was 50 new bitcoins in On May 11, , the third halving occurred, bringing the reward for each block discovery down to 6. A variety of hardware can be used to mine Bitcoin. However, some yield higher rewards than others.

Certain computer chips, called application-specific integrated circuits ASICs , and more advanced processing units, such as graphic processing units GPUs , can achieve more rewards. These elaborate mining processors are known as "mining rigs. One bitcoin is divisible to eight decimal places millionths of one bitcoin , and this smallest unit is referred to as a Satoshi.

If necessary, and if the participating miners accept the change, Bitcoin could eventually be made divisible to even more decimal places. The domain name Bitcoin. Today, at least, this domain is WhoisGuard Protected, meaning the identity of the person who registered it is not public information. A person or group using the name Satoshi Nakamoto makes an announcement to the Cryptography Mailing List at metzdowd.

The first Bitcoin block is mined—Block 0. The first version of the Bitcoin software is announced to the Cryptography Mailing List. Block 1 is mined, and Bitcoin mining commences in earnest. No one knows who invented Bitcoin, or at least not conclusively. Satoshi Nakamoto is the name associated with the person or group of people who released the original Bitcoin white paper in and worked on the original Bitcoin software that was released in In the years since then, many individuals have either claimed to be or been rumored to be the real-life people behind the pseudonym, but as of November , the true identity or identities of Satoshi Nakamoto remains obscured.

Although it is tempting to believe the media's spin that Satoshi Nakamoto is a solitary, quixotic genius who created Bitcoin out of thin air, such innovations do not typically happen in a vacuum. All major scientific discoveries, no matter how seemingly original, were built on previously existing research. The Bitcoin white paper itself makes reference to Hashcash and b-money as well as various other works spanning several research fields.

Perhaps unsurprisingly, many of the individuals behind the other projects named above have been speculated to have also had a hand in creating Bitcoin. There are a few possible motivations for Bitcoin's inventor to keep their identity secret. One is privacy: As Bitcoin has gained in popularity—becoming something of a worldwide phenomenon—Satoshi Nakamoto would likely garner a lot of attention from the media and from governments. Another reason could be the potential for Bitcoin to cause a major disruption in the current banking and monetary systems.

If Bitcoin were to gain mass adoption, the system could surpass nations' sovereign fiat currencies. This threat to existing currency could motivate governments to want to take legal action against Bitcoin's creator. The other reason is safety. Looking at alone, 32, blocks were mined; at the reward rate of 50 Bitcoin per block, the total payout in was 1,, Bitcoin. One may conclude that only Satoshi and perhaps a few other people were mining through and that they possess a majority of that stash of Bitcoin.

Someone in possession of that much Bitcoin could become a target of criminals, especially considering that Bitcoin is less like stocks and more like cash, wherein the private keys needed to authorize spending could be printed out and literally kept under a mattress. Though it's likely the inventor of Bitcoin would take precautions to make any extortion-induced transfers traceable, remaining anonymous is a good way for Satoshi Nakamoto to limit exposure.

Bitcoin can be accepted as a means of payment for products sold or services provided. An online business can easily accept Bitcoin by adding this payment option to its other online payment options: credit cards, PayPal, etc. El Salvador became the first country to officially adopt Bitcoin as legal tender in June Those who are self-employed can get paid for a job related to Bitcoin. There are several ways to achieve this, such as creating any internet service and adding your Bitcoin wallet address to the site as a form of payment.

There are also several websites and job boards that are dedicated to digital currencies:. Many Bitcoin supporters believe that digital currency is the future. Many individuals who endorse Bitcoin believe it facilitates a much faster, low-fee payment system for transactions across the globe. Although it is not backed by any government or central bank, Bitcoin can be exchanged for traditional currencies; in fact, its exchange rate against the dollar attracts potential investors and traders interested in currency plays.

Indeed, one of the primary reasons for the growth of digital currencies like Bitcoin is that they can act as an alternative to national fiat money and traditional commodities like gold. In March , the IRS stated that all virtual currencies, including Bitcoin, would be taxed as property rather than currency. Gains or losses from Bitcoin held as capital will be realized as capital gains or losses, while Bitcoin held as inventory will incur ordinary gains or losses.

The sale of Bitcoin you mined or purchased from another party, or the use of Bitcoin to pay for goods or services, are examples of transactions that can be taxed. Like any other asset, the principle of buying low and selling high applies to Bitcoin. The most popular way of amassing the currency is through buying on a Bitcoin exchange, but there are many other ways to earn and own Bitcoin. Speculative investors have been drawn to Bitcoin after its rapid price appreciation in recent years.

Thus, many people purchase Bitcoin for its investment value rather than its ability to act as a medium of exchange. However, the lack of guaranteed value and its digital nature means its purchase and use carry several inherent risks. The concept of a virtual currency is still novel and, compared to traditional investments, Bitcoin doesn't have much of a long-term track record or history of credibility to back it.

With its increasing popularity, Bitcoin is becoming less experimental every day; still, after only a decade, all digital currencies remain in a development phase. Investing money in any of Bitcoin's many guises is not for the risk-averse. Bitcoin is a rival to government currency and may be used for underground market transactions, money laundering, illegal activities, or tax evasion.

As a result, governments may seek to regulate, restrict, or ban the use and sale of Bitcoin and some already have. Others are coming up with various rules. For example, in , the New York State Department of Financial Services finalized regulations that would require companies dealing with the buy, sell, transfer, or storage of Bitcoin to record the identity of customers, have a compliance officer, and maintain capital reserves.

The lack of uniform regulations about Bitcoin and other virtual currencies raises questions over their longevity, liquidity, and universality. Most individuals who own and use Bitcoin have not acquired their tokens through mining operations. Rather, they buy and sell Bitcoin and other digital currencies on any of the popular online markets, known as Bitcoin exchanges or cryptocurrency exchanges.

Bitcoin exchanges are entirely digital and—as with any virtual system—are at risk from hackers, malware, and operational glitches. If a thief gains access to a Bitcoin owner's computer hard drive and steals their private encryption key, they could transfer the stolen Bitcoin to another account. Users can prevent this only if their Bitcoin is stored on a computer that is not connected to the internet, or else by choosing to use a paper wallet —printing out the Bitcoin private keys and addresses and not keeping them on a computer at all.

Hackers can also target Bitcoin exchanges, gaining access to thousands of accounts and digital wallets where Bitcoin is stored. One especially notorious hacking incident took place in , when Mt. Gox, a Bitcoin exchange in Japan, was forced to close down after millions of dollars worth of Bitcoin were stolen. This is particularly problematic given that all Bitcoin transactions are permanent and irreversible. It's like dealing with cash: Any transaction carried out with Bitcoin can only be reversed if the person who has received them refunds them.

There is no third party or payment processor as in the case of a debit or credit card—hence, no source of protection or appeal if there is a problem. Generally speaking, Bitcoin exchanges and Bitcoin accounts are not insured by any type of federal or government program.

In , prime dealer and trading platform SFOX announced it would be able to provide Bitcoin investors with FDIC insurance, but only for the portion of transactions involving cash. Though Bitcoin uses private key encryption to verify owners and register transactions, fraudsters and scammers may attempt to sell false Bitcoin. There have also been documented cases of Bitcoin price manipulation, another common form of fraud.

As with any investment, Bitcoin values can fluctuate. Indeed, the value of the currency has seen wild swings in price over its short existence. Subject to high volume buying and selling on exchanges, it has a high sensitivity to any newsworthy events. If fewer people begin to accept Bitcoin as a currency, these digital units may lose value and could become worthless.

Indeed, there was speculation that the "Bitcoin bubble" had burst when the price declined from its all-time high during the cryptocurrency rush in late and early There is already plenty of competition, and although Bitcoin has a huge lead over the hundreds of other digital currencies that have sprung up because of its brand recognition and venture capital money, a technological breakthrough in the form of a better virtual coin is always a threat.

Bitcoin's all-time high price, reached on Nov. In the years since Bitcoin launched, there have been numerous instances in which disagreements between factions of miners and developers prompted large-scale splits of the cryptocurrency community.

In some of these cases, groups of Bitcoin users and miners have changed the protocol of the Bitcoin network itself. This process is known as "forking," and it usually results in the creation of a new type of Bitcoin with a new name. This split can be a " hard fork ," in which a new coin shares transaction history with Bitcoin up until a decisive split point, at which point a new token is created.

Examples of cryptocurrencies that have been created as a result of hard forks include Bitcoin Cash created in August , Bitcoin Gold created in October , and Bitcoin SV created in November A " soft fork " is a change to the protocol that is still compatible with the previous system rules. For example, Bitcoin soft forks have added functionalities such as segregated witness SegWit.

Its value is derived from several sources, including its relative scarcity, market demand, and marginal cost of production. Even though Bitcoin is virtual and can't be touched, it is certainly real. Bitcoin has been around for more than a decade and the system has proved itself to be robust. The computer code that runs the system, moreover, is open source and can be downloaded and analyzed by anybody for bugs or evidence of nefarious intent.

Of course, fraudsters may attempt to swindle people out of their Bitcoin or hack sites such as crypto exchanges, but these are flaws in human behavior or third-party applications and not in Bitcoin itself. The maximum number of bitcoins that will ever be produced is 21 million, and the last bitcoin will be mined at some point around the year As of November , more than By convention, use a capital B when discussing the Bitcoin network, protocol, or system.

Use a small b when talking about individual bitcoins as a unit of value for example, I sent two bitcoins. There are several online exchanges that allow you to purchase Bitcoin. In addition, Bitcoin ATMs —internet-connected kiosks that can be used to buy bitcoins with credit cards or cash—have been popping up around the world.

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